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雅思阅读机经真题Amateur Naturalists和Nobel讲解
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文章导读:本文是小编整理的《雅思阅读机经真题Amateur Naturalists和Nobel讲解》,希望对正在阅读的读者有所帮助。
  
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         雅思阅读机经真题Amateur Naturalists和Nobel讲解

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  Alfred Nobel
  
  The man behind the Nobel Prize
  
  A Since 1901, the Nobel Prize has been honoring men and women from all comers of the globe for outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and for work in peace. The foundations for the prize were laid in 1895 when Alfred Nobel wrote his lost will, leaving much of his wealth to the establishment of the Nobel Prize.
  
  B Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm on October 21. 1833. His father Immanuel Nobel was an engineer and inventor who built bridges and buildings in Stockholm. In connection with his construction work Immanuel Nobel also experimented with different techniques for blasting rocks. Successful in his industrial and business ventures, Immanuel Nobel was able, in 1842, to bring his family to St. Petersburg. There, his sons were given a first class education by private teachers. The training included natural sciences, languages and literature. By the age of 17 Alfred Nobel was fluent in Swedish, Russian, French, English and German. His primary interests were in English literature and poetry as well as in chemistry and physics. Alfred's father, who wanted his sons to join his enterprise as engineers, disliked Alfred's interest in poetry and found his son rather introverted.
  
  C In order to widen Alfred's horizons his father sent him abroad for further training in chemical engineering. During a two year period Alfred Nobel visited Sweden, Germany. France and the United States. In Paris, the city he came to like best, he worked in the private laboratory of Professor T. J. Pelouze, a famous chemist. There he met the young Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero who, three years earlier, had invented nitroglycerine, a highly explosive liquid. But it was considered too dangerous to be of any practical use. Although its explosive power greatly exceeded that of gunpowder, the liquid would explode in a very unpredictable manner if subjected to heat and pressure. Alfred Nobel became very interested in nitroglycerine and how it could be put to practical use in construction work. He also realized that the safety problems had to be solved and a method had to be developed for the controlled detonation of nitroglycerine.
  
  D After his return to Sweden in 1863, Alfred Nobel concentrated on developing nitroglycerine as an explosive. Several explosions, including one (1864) in which his brother Kmil and several other persons were killed, convinced the authorities that nitroglycerine production was exceedingly dangerous. They forbade further experimentation with nitroglycerine within the Stockholm city limits and Alfred Nobel had to move his experimentation to a barge anchored on Lake Malaren. Alfred was not discouraged and in 1864 he was able to start mass production of nitroglycerine. To make the handling of nitroglycerine safer Alfred Nobel experimented with different additives. He soon found that mixing nitroglycerine with kieselguhr would turn the liquid into a paste which could be shaped into rods of a size and form suitable for insertion into drilling holes. In 1867 he patented this material under die name of dynamite. To be able to detonate the dynamite rods he also invented a detonator (blasting cap) which could be ignited by lighting a fuse. These inventions were made at the same time as the pneumatic drill came into general use. Together these inventions drastically reduced the cost of blasting rock, drilling tunnels, building canals and many other forms of construction work.
  
  E The market for dynamite and detonating caps grew very rapidly and Alfred Nobel also proved himself to be a very skillful entrepreneur and businessman.Over the years he founded factories and laboratories in some 90 different places in more than 20 countries. Although he lived in Paris much of his life he was constantly traveling. When he was not traveling or engaging in business activities Nobel himself worked intensively in his various laboratories, first in Stockholm and later in other places. He focused on the development of explosives technology as well as other chemical inventions, including such materials as synthetic rubber and leather, artificial silk, etc. By the time of his death in 18% he had 355 patents.
  
  F Intensive work and travel did not leave much time for a private life. At the age of 43 he was feeling like an old man. At this time he advertised in a newspaper"Wealthy, highly-educated elder gentleman seeks lady of mature age, versed in languages, as secretary and supervisor of household." The most qualified applicant turned out to be an Austrian woman. Countess Bertha Kinsky. After working a very short time for Nobel she decided to return to Austria to marry Count Arthur von Suttner. In spite of this Alfred Nobel and Bertha von Suttner remained friends and kept writing letters to each other for decades. Over the years Bertha von Suttner became increasingly critical of the arms race. She wrote a famous book, Lay Down Your Arms and became a prominent figure in the peace movement. No doubt this influenced Alfred Nobel when he wrote his final will which was to include a Prize for persons or organizations who promote peace. Several years after the death of Alfred Nobel, the Norwegian Storting (Parliament) decided to award the 1905 Nobel Peace Prize to Bertha von Suttner.
  
  G Alfred Nobel died in San Remo, Italy, on December 10, 1896. When his will was opened it came as a surprise that his fortune was to be used for Prizes in Physics, Chemistry. Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace. The executors of his will were two young engineers, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist. They set about forming the Nobel Foundation as an organization to take care of the financial assets left by Nobel for this purpose and to coordinate the work of the Prize-Awarding Institutions. This was not without its difficulties since the will was contested by relatives and questioned by authorities in various countries.
  
  H Alfred Nobel's greatness lay in his ability to combine the penetrating mind of the scientist and inventor with the forward-looking dynamism of the industrialist. Nobel was very interested in social and peace-related issues and held what were considered radical views in his era. He had a great interest in literature and wrote his own poetry and dramatic works. The Nobel Prizes became an extension d a fulfillment of his lifetime interests.
  
  Questions 1-6
  
  Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
  
  In boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet, write
  
  TRUE if the statement is true
  
  FALSE if the statement is false
  
  NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
  
  1     The first Nobel Prize was awarded in 1895.
  
  2     Nobel's father wanted his son to have better education than what he had had.
  
  3     Nobel was an unsuccessful businessman.
  
  4 Bertha von Suttner was selected by Nobel himself for the first peace prize.
  
  5     The Nobel Foundation was established after the death of Nobel
  
  6     Nobel's social involvement was uncommon in the 1800’s.
  
  Questions 7-13
  
  Complete the notes below using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage.
  
  Write your answers in boxes 7-13 on your answer sheet.
  
  Table 1
  
  Education:
  
  Having accumulated a great fortune in his business, Nobel's father determined to give his son the best education and sent him abroad to be trained in 7 During Nobel's study in Paris, he worked in a private laboratory, where he came in contact with a young Scientist (engineer) 8 and his invention nitroglycerine, a more powerful explosive than 9
  
  Table 2
  
  Benefits in construction works:
  
  Nobel became really interested in this new explosive and experimented on it. But nitroglycerine was too dangerous and was banned for experiments within the city of 10 So Nobel had to move his experiments to a lake. To make nitroglycerine easily usable, Nobel invented dynamite along with 11 while in the meantime 12 became popular, all of which dramatically lowered the 13 of construction works.
  
  文章题目:Alfred Nobel
  
  The man behind the Nobel Prize
  
  篇章结构
  
  体裁
  
  人物传记
  
  题目
  
  阿尔弗雷德—诺贝尔奖背后的人
  
  结构
  
  (一句话概括每段大意)
  
  A段:诺奖的介绍及诺贝尔对诺奖的贡献
  
  B段:诺贝尔的家庭介绍和童年经历
  
  C段:诺贝尔对炸药消化甘油产生兴趣
  
  D段:诺贝尔安全炸药的发明及其应用
  
  E段:诺贝尔的生活状态和他的发明成果
  
  F段:诺贝尔设立和平奖的缘由
  
  G段:诺贝尔遗产的分配和诺奖的成立
  
  H段:对诺贝尔生平成就的评价
  
  Amateur Naturalists
  
  You should spend about 20 minutes on Question 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage below.
  
  A
  
  Tim Sparks slides a small leather-bound notebook out of an envelope. The books yellowing pages contain beekeeping notes made between 1941 and 1969 by the late Walter Coates of Kilworth, Leicestershire. He adds it to his growing pile of local journals, birdwatchers' lists and gardening diaries, "We're uncovering about one major new record each month,” he says, “I still get surprised." Around two centuries before Coates, Robert Marsham, a landowner from Norfolk in the east of England, began recording the life cycles of plants and animals on his estate when the first wood anemones flowered, the dates on which the oaks burst into leaf and the rooks began nesting. Successive Marshams continued compiling these notes for 211 years.
  
  B
  
  Today, such records are being put to uses that their authors could not possibly have expected. These data sets, and others like them, ire proving invaluable to ecologists interested in the timing of biological events, or phenology. By combining the records with climate data, researchers can reveal how, for example, changes in temperature affect the arrived of spring, allowing ecologists to make improved predictions about the impact of climate change. A small band of researchers is combing through hundreds of years of records taken by thousands of amateur naturalists. And more systematic projects have also started up, producing on overwhelming response. "The amount of interest is almost frightening," says Sparks, a climate researcher at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology in Monks Wood, Cambridgeshire.
  
  C
  
  Sparks became aware of the army of "closet phenologists", as he describes them, when a retiring colleague gave him the Marsham records. He now spends much of his time following leads from one historical data set to another. As news of his quest spreads, people tip him off to other historical records, and more amateur phenologists come out of their closets. The British devotion to recording and collecting makes his job easier - one man from: Kent sent him 30 years' worth of kitchen calendar, on which he had noted the date that his neighbour's magnolia tree flowered.
  
  D
  
  Other researchers have unearthed data from equally odd sources. Rafe Sargarin recently studied records of a betting contest in which participants attempt to guess the exact time at which a specially erected wooden tripod will fall through the surface of a thawing river. The competition has taken place annually on the Tenana River in Alaska since 1917, and analysis of the results showed that the thaw now arrives five days earlier than it did when the contest began.
  
  E
  
  Overall, Such records have helped to show that, compared with 20 years ago, a raft of natural events now occur earlier across much of the northern hemisphere, from the opening of leaves to the return of birds from migration and the emergence of butterflies from hibernation . The data can also hint at how nature will change in the future. Together with models of climate change, amateurs' records could help guide conservation. Terry Root, an ecologist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, has collected birdwatchers' counts of wildfowl taken between 1955 and 19% on seasonal ponds in the American. Midwest and combined them with climate data and models of future warming. Her analysis shows that the increased droughts that the models predict could halve the breeding populations at the ponds. "The number of waterfowl in North America will most probably drop significantly with global warming," she says.
  
  F
  
  But not all professionals are happy to use amateur data. "A lot of scientists won't touch them, they say they're too full of problems," says Root. Because different observers can have different ideas of what constitutes, for example, an open snowdrop. The biggest concern with ad hoc observations is how carefully and systematically they were taken," says Mark Schwartz of the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, who studies the interactions between plants and climate. "We need to know pretty precisely what a person's been observing - if they just say 'I noted when the leaves came out', it might not be that useful." Measuring the onset of autumn can be particularly problematic because deciding when leaves change color is a more subjective process than noting when they appear.
  
  G
  
  Overall, most phenologists are positive about the contribution that amateurs can make. "They get at the raw power of science: careful observation of the natural world," says Sagarin. But the professionals also acknowledge the need for careful quality control. Root, for example, tries to gauge the quality of an amateur archive by interviewing its collector. "You always have to worry things as trivial as vacations can affect measurement. I disregard a lot of records because they're not rigorous enough," she says. Others suggest that the right statistics can iron out some of the problems with amateur data. Together with colleagues at Wageningen University in the Netherlands, environmental scientist Arnold van Vliet is developing statistical techniques to account for the uncertainty in amateur phenological data. With the enthusiasm of amateur phenologists evident from past records, professional researchers are now trying to create standardized recording schemes for future efforts. They hope that well-designed studies will generate a volume of observations: large enough to drown out the idiosyncrasies of individual recorders. The data are cheap to collect, and can provide breadth in space, time and range of species. "It's very difficult to collect data on a large geographical scale without enlisting an army of observers," says Root.
  
  H
  
  Phenology also helps to drive home messages about climate change. "Because the public understand these records, they accept them," says Sparks. It can also illustrate potentially unpleasant consequences, he adds, such as the finding that more rat infestations are reported to local councils in warmer years. And getting people involved is great for public relations. "People are thrilled to think that the data they've been collecting as a hobby can be used for something scientific -it empowers them," says Root.
  
  Questions 27-33
  
  The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-H
  
  Which paragraph contains the following information?
  
  Write the correct letter A-H, in boxes 27-33 on your answer sheet
  
  27.    Definition of Phenology introduced
  
  28.    Sparks first noticed amateur records
  
  29.    Surprise function of casual data in science
  
  30.    It seems like mission impossible without enormous amateur data collection
  
  31.    Example of using amateur records for a scientific prediction
  
  32.    Records from an amateur contributed to climate change
  
  33.    Collection of old records compiled by a family of amateur naturalists
  
  Questions 34-36
  
  Complete the sentences below with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 34-36 on your answer sheet.
  
  34.    In Waiter Coates' records, there are plenty of information of .
  
  35.    Robert Marsham is well-known for noting animals and plants' .
  
  36.    The number of waterfowl in North America decreases because of increased according to some phenologists.
  
  Questions 37-40
  
  Choose the correct letter, A, B, C, or D.
  
  Write your answers in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet
  
  37 Why do a lot of scientists question the amateurs’ data?
  
  A.      Data collection is not professional
  
  B.       Amateur observers are careless.
  
  C.       Amateur data is not reliable sometimes.
  
  D.      They have one-sided work experience
  
  38 Example of leaves Mark Schwartz used to explain that?
  
  A.      Amateur records arc not reliable at all.
  
  B.       Amateur records arc not well organized.
  
  C.       Some details are very difficult to notice.
  
  D.      Valuable information is accurate one.
  
  39 What suggestion of scientists for the usage of amateur data?
  
  A.      Use modified and better approaches.
  
  B.       Only Observation data is valuable.
  
  C.       Use original materials instead of changed ones.
  
  D.      Method of data collection is the most important.
  
  40 What's the implication of phenology for ordinary people?
  
  A.      It enriches the knowledge of the public.
  
  B.       It improves ordinary people's relations with scientists.
  
  C.       It encourages people to collect more animal information.
  
  D.      It arouses public awareness about climate change.

 
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